American Society of Civil Engineers

Load Factor Resistant Design (LFRD)

The Pultrusion Industry Council (PIC) of the American Composites Manufacturers Association (ACMA) and the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) worked together to develop the first design standard for pultruded composites. This 3-year project, financially supported by the PIC members, resulted in the development of a “Pre-Standard for Load & Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) of Pultruded Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Structures,” ASCE served as the project manager in the development of the standard.

Currently, this Pre-Standard document is following the standards development process by ASCE and ANSI to promulgate this into an official ASCE Standard. The ASCE Fiber Composites and Polymers Standards Committee has the responsibility to review and ballot the Pre-Standard.

The LRFD standard will establish material properties for pultruded FRP composites that will allow architects and structural engineers to use pultruded FRP products with confidence.

LRFD Standard Outline

  • Chapter 1. General Provisions
  • Chapter 2. Design Requirements
  • Chapter 3. Design of Tension Members
  • Chapter 4. Design of Compression Members
  • Chapter 5. Design of Members for Flexure and Shear
  • Chapter 6. Design of Members Under Combined Forces and Torsion
  • Chapter 7. Design of Plates and Built-Up Members
  • Chapter 8. Design of Bolted Connections

Pre-Standard Authors

  • Dr. Bruce R. Ellingwood, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Dr. Abdul-Hamid Zureick, Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Dr. Hota V. S. GangaRao, West Virginia University
  • Dr. Roberto Lopez-Anido, University of Maine
  • Dr. Lawrence Bank, University of Wisconsin at Madison (supported by Dr. J. Toby Mottram, Warwick University (UK), Dr. Russell Gentry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dr. Carol Shield, University of Minnesota, and Michael McCarthy, University of Wisconsin)

Engineers, architects, and designers may request a complimentary copy of the LRFD PreStandard by contacting John Busel at

Other Books related to Composites Design, Standards, and Specification

  • Design of Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Stacks (52-10) - This Standard outlines the important mechanical and structural engineering considerations for stacks where the primary supporting shell is made of FRP.
  • Design Guide for FRP Composite Connections - This Manual of Practice covers major issues related to the analysis and design of composite joints and frame connections manufactured from fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in general and pultruded (PFRP) composites in particular
  • Recommended Practice for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Products for Overhead Utility Line Structures - Manuals of Practice (MOP) 104 - This Manual details best practices for the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) products in conductor support applications and FRP poles.
  • Composites in Construction - This collection contains 29 papers that address the state of the art in fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for use in construction.
  • Gap Analysis for Durability of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Civil Engineering - This report provides the results of a study on what is known and not known about the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites as a material for civil infrastructure. As FRP composites are increasingly used, the lack or inaccessibility of data related to the their durability is proving to be a major obstacle to widespread acceptance and implementation of these materials. This report provides the results of a "gap analysis" to identify critical areas in which data is needed to assist with specific applications.
  • Structural Plastics Selection Manual - Manuals of Practice (MOP) MOP 66 - Structural Plastics Manual presents information for the structural engineer regarding the selection of the proper material or combination of materials that will provide those properties (mechanical, physical, thermal, or whatever) upon which design assumptions and calculations are based.